ASSESSING NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS

  • Before setting nutritional recommendation, you need to assess the current nutritional and lifestyle practices of the client
  • This will ensure that any recommendation or goals set are attainable for the client and maximise results
  • This is a requirement before any nutritional recommendations can be made
  • Important to remember that energy balance is the primary consideration for programming

CONSIDERATIONS WHEN ASSESSING ENERGY REQUIREMENTS

  • Lifestyle (Energy Requirements)
  • Training Status
  • Body Composition
  • Current Dietary Intake
  • Individuals Goals

AIM OF NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

  • Determine Current Nutritional Intakes in individuals or Groups
  • Forms the Basis for Nutritional Recommendations e.g. Surplus, Deficit, Nutritional Deficiencies etc.
  • To Identify High Risk Groups with Respect to Nutritional Vulnerability
  • To Make Recommendation to Rectify Shortcomings

Anthropometry

Biochemical and Lab methods

Clinical assessment

Diet Survey / Assessment

Ecological studies

Functional assessment

DIETARY RECALL

  • Recall all foods and drinks consumed in 24 hours prior to interview
  • Regional and ethnicity specific preparations and methods
  • Structured, without probing questions
  • Food amounts converted into nutrient intakes using food composition tables

DIET HISTORY

  • Structured Interview Method
  • Traditionally Includes 3-Day Food Record
  • ‘Cross Check’ to Clarify Information About Usual Intake In Past 3, 6 or 12 Months
  • Clinical Practice
  • Meal Timings, Food Preparation

FOOD DIARY

  • Require Client to Weigh All Foods and Beverages for a Given Length of Time
  • Precise and High Validity
  • Reference Method in Validation Studies
  • Tendency of Clients to Report Close to what is Socially Desirable
  • High Respondent Burden
  • May Influence Food Behaviour
  • Difficulty in Measuring Portion Sizes
  • New Technologies

NUTRITION PROGRAMMING

  • Client Goals
  • Calculated BMR
  • Lifestyle Factors
  • Time Available for your Programming
  • Client Health Status
  • Client Preferences

MACRONUTRIENT TARGET SETTING

  • Once energy requirements are covered, macronutrients such as protein should be considered
  • Timing meals around training may be beneficial
  • For example, a meal high in carbohydrate in the lead up to a training session
  • It is fruitless to focus on supplements and timing of meals when energy balance is not aligned with clients goals

MACRONUTRIENT TARGET SETTING FOR FAT LOSS

  • Looking at macronutrients specifically, there is a hierarchy when fat loss is the goal as per illustration
  • Fat and carbohydrates are relatively interchangeable

NUTRITION LABELS ON PACK

  • Nutrition labels are often displayed as a panel or grid on the back or side of packaging
  • This type of label includes information on energy as kilojoules or kilocalories, fat, saturate or unsaturated fat, carbohydrate, sugars, protein and salt
  • It may also provide additional information on certain nutrients, such as fibre
  • All nutrition information is provided per 100 grams and sometimes per portion
  • When comparing labels always use per 100g values
  • Total Fat
    • High: more than 5g of fat per 100g
    • Low: 3g of fat or less per 100g
  • Saturated Fat
    • High: more than 5g of saturated fat per 100g
    • Low: 1.5g of saturated fat or less per 100g
  • Sugars
    • High: more than 22.5g of total sugars per 100g
    • Low: 5g of total sugars or less per 100g
  • Salt
    • High: more than 1.5g of salt per 100g (or 6g sodium)
    • Low: 0.3g of salt or less per 100g (or 1g sodium)

Alternatives

  • Aggressive Dieting Methods
  • Intermittent Fasting
  • Slow Down Eating, Minimise Distraction
  • Simple Swaps
  • Weight Loss Improves Almost All Obesity Related Co-morbidity and Metabolic Markers Regardless of the Macronutrient Composition of the diet. Individuals will have Macronutrient or Dieting Preferences
MOST COMMON UTILISED DIETS
  • Low Fat
  • Low Carbohydrate
  • Mediterranean Diet
  • Commercial Slimming Programs
  • Meal Replacements
  • Intermittent Fasting

Summary

  • Assess Current Diet Practices
  • Calculate Current Energy Intake
    • Diet Recall
    • Diet History
    • Food Frequency Questionnaire
  • Determine the Most Achievable Method to Maintain Recommended Intakes
    • Lifestyle
    • Food Preference
    • Attitude
  • Create an Open, Honest Professional Environment
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